Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to an organization’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and editing it as required, monitoring data changes, and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is a part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company that assists in decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data in accordance with a specific schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, also known as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most popular type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, developed by E. F. « Ted » Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases and offer different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level focuses on how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.

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